A group of protestors in Dakar raise their hands to signify the "tied hands of the people" during pre-election protest in Senegal. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
A protestor in Dakar wears a Y'en a Marre shirt during demonstrations calling on President Abdoulaye Wade to abandon his bid for a third term in the 2012 elections. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Many of the opposition protests calling for President Abdoulaye Wade to leave power were organized by Y'en a Marre, a group of politically active rappers and hip-hop musicians. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
At demonstrations in downtown Dakar people called on President Abdoulaye Wade to abandon his bid for a third term. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
A protestor in Dakar raises his hands to signify the "tied hands of the people" during pre-election protests. Police played a game of cat and mouse with protestors in the the streets of the capital. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
A group of protestors in Dakar yell at police to stop firing tear gas. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Protesters in Dakar make the hand motion to 'Na Dem,' a popular hip-hop song that calls for President Abdoulaye Wade to abandon his run in the 2012 elections. 'Na Dem,' which means 'Go Away,' was an unofficial opposition anthem popularized by Senegalese rapper Red Black. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Youssou N'dour, Senegal's most famous musician, was a leading figure during opposition protests. N'dour attempted to run for president during the 2012 elections, but the country's constitutional council disqualified him. During this protest in downtown Dakar, he rode with opposition politicians in a caravan as they called on President Abdoulaye Wade to step down. He was later hit with a tear gas canister fired by police. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Youssou N'dour, Senegal's most famous musician, was a leading figure during opposition protests. N'dour attempted to run for president during the 2012 elections, but the country's constitutional council disqualified him. During this protest in downtown Dakar, he rode with opposition politicians in a caravan as they called on current President Abdoulaye Wade to step down. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Protestors in Dakar run from police tear gas. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Rapper Djily Baghad is one of the many Senegalese musicians who form Y'en a Marre, a politically active group of artists in Senegal. Baghdad said they are fighting for democracy and also trying to inform the citizenry. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Rapper Simon Bisbi Clan, whose real name is Simon Mohamed Kouka, was arrested during opposition protests leading up to Senegal's presidential elections. Simon is one of the outspoken voices in Y'en a Marre, a politically active group of rappers and musicians. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Rappers and musicians from Y'en a Marre waiting outside in Dakar. They gathered to help a fellow musician, Books, film a video critical of the government ahead of Senegal's presidential elections. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Books, a Senegalese rapper, films a music video critical of the government. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.
Rapper Red Black, whose real name is El Hadj Dia, wrote one of the unofficial anthems of Senegal's opposition protests. The song "Na Dem," which means “Go Away” in Senegal’s most popular language, Wolof, calls on President Abdoulaye Wade to abandon his bid for a third term. Image by Ricci Shryock. Senegal, 2012.

Rappers and other musicians in Senegal founded Y’en a Marre (Enough is Enough) as a way to call for political and social change in the West African country. One of their primary goals has been to oppose President Abdoulaye Wade's attempt to take office for a third term, which they say violates Senegal’s constitutional two-term limit. Wade insists the term limit does not apply to him since it was enacted while he was in office. As a test of the country’s tolerance of free of speech, demonstrators defied a ban on public protests and continued to gather in Dakar's Independence Square. Rappers played a vital role in organizing the demonstrations.

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Senegal’s hip-hop artists are voicing their nation’s anger and leading a movement to stop President Abdoulaye Wade from staging what they say is a constitutional coup.

Recently

April 4, 2012 / Untold Stories
Ricci Shryock
Protest songs by Senegalese rappers have become the unofficial soundtrack of the opposition movement, uniting demonstrators seeking to oust President Abdoulaye Wade.
April 4, 2012 / Upfront Africa
Ricci Shryock
Hip Hop is playing an important role in Senegal's democratic process—which rapper Red Black makes clear with his song "Na Dem."