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Improving India's Plumbing

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Pramod Kumar explains a new toilet design in rural Bihar, India. Image by Ann Schraufnagel. India, 2015.

Chicago-based medical student Ann Schraufnagel knew little about open defecation until she began studying public health at Johns Hopkins. She was shocked to learn about the scale of the crisis. Millions of people in developing countries lack access to basics, like toilets.

Schraufnagel decided to go to India to learn more about open defecation and to try and help come up with solutions. She tells WBEZ's Worldview how she learned that the reasons many in India don’t have toilets was a lot more complicated than she first thought.